Gray & Pape’s team of archaeologists performs all manners of archaeological work, including both research-oriented archaeology and cultural resource management (CRM) projects. The staff includes experts in both prehistoric and historical archaeology, as well as sub-disciplines such as urban, industrial, and underwater archaeology, and paleoethnobotany, geoarchaeology and remote sensing. CRM services include pre-project planning and predictive modeling; Phase I survey, Phase II evaluation, and Phase III data recovery; and archaeological monitoring.


  • Section 106 consultation
  • Phase I identification and evaluation of historic properties
  • Phase II assessment of project effects
  • Phase III development and implementation of mitigation measures
  • Agency and consulting party coordination
  • Predictive modeling and avoidance planning
  • Prehistoric/historic context development
  • Archaeological monitoring
  • Urban archaeology
  • Industrial archaeology
  • Underwater archaeology
  • Paleoethnobotany
  • Geoarchaeology